By R. S. Rollings (auth.), John W. Bull (eds.)

The use of precast concrete is a well-established development approach for beams, flooring, panels, piles, partitions and different structural components. The advan­ tages of precasting comprise first-class qc, budget friendly huge scale creation, more advantageous development productiveness (especially in opposed climatic conditions) and speedy constitution availability. those merits were famous for precast concrete raft pavement devices (raft devices) considering their advent within the Thirties. within the final ten years there was a substantial raise within the use ofraft devices, specially of their diversity of purposes, their research and their layout. notwithstanding, the outline of those advancements has been released in academicjournals and convention lawsuits which aren't available to practicing raft unit pavement layout engineers. Pavement layout engineers are underincreasingpressure to supply raft unit designs which are low-cost, durable and ready to permit reorganization to deal with altering use and uncertainty offuture loading standards. this can be the 1st booklet dedicated to raft unit pavements, and should turn into a customary paintings of reference.

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Comparisons between these three techniques can, therefore, be particularly enlightening. The most important criterion governing the adequacy of all three of these ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES FOR CONCRETE PAVEMENTS 27 numerical approaches is the fineness of the subdivisions made during the solution process. The requirement for a fine grid has to be tempered, by the amount of computer memory available, as well as to the required execution time. User guidelines for the design of adequate grids should be developed for each new program, otherwise these powerful tools can be abused and result in misleading conclusions.

It is often assumed that these pairs of terms have identical meanings, thus resulting in extremely long factorials and incomplete (often misleading) data interpretation. Regression algorithms obtained in this way cannot be applied to data other than those for which they were developed. In contrast, establishing independent and dependent variables by combining a number of input parameters and output values into non-dimensional forms, merely recognizes the fundamental engineering interactions between the factors involved.

3 Repair criteria For raft-type pavements neither the deflection criteria of flexible pavements nor the cracking criteria for rigid pavements are adequate repair criteria [16]. For example, in flexible pavement design, a pavement would be considered to have failed if the surface deformation exceeds 25mm [16]. For raft-type pavements, edge movements in excess of 50mm have little effect on the largerdiameter wheels of container-handling equipment. Any differential settlement between rafts is overcome by lifting and relevelling the raft pavement units.

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