By J. G. Hooley (auth.), R. M. A. Lieth (eds.)

The target of the sequence Physics and Chemistry of fabrics with Layered constructions is to provide a severe survey of our current wisdom on a wide relatives of fabrics which might be defined as solids containing molecules which in dimensions expand to infinity and that are loosely stacked on most sensible of one another to shape 3­ dimensional crystals. in fact, the physics and chemistry of those crystals are particular chapters in traditional sturdy country technology, and lots of a scientist attempting to find new phenomena has some time past been disillusioned to discover that fabrics with layered buildings usually are not completely unique. Their electron and phonon states should not ­ dimensional, and the excessive hopes held via a few for miraculous dimensionality results in superconductivity have been shattered. however, the structural positive factors and their actual and chemical effects singularize layered constructions sufficiently to cause them to a desirable topic of analysis. this can be all of the truer for the reason that they're met in insulators and semiconductors in addition to in common and superconducting metals. even supposing in the intervening time the sequence is deliberately constrained to hide inorganic fabrics purely, the various recognized natural layered constructions might be the topic of destiny volumes. one of the noteworthy peculiarities of layered constructions, we point out particular progress mechanisms and crystal conduct. Polytypism is quite common and it truly is fasci­ nating certainly to discover as much as 240 diverse polytypes within the comparable chemical substance.

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II. Ia. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35 . 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. J. HOOLEY H. Krebs, H. Weitz, and K. H. Worms: Z. anorg. allg. Chern. 280 (1955), 119. R. H. : inJ. J. ), The Art and Science of Growing Crystals, J. Wiley, 1963, p. 187. S. S. Boksha: J. Cryst. Growth 3/4 (1968), 426. R. Rau and A. Rabenau: J. Cryst. Growth 3/4 (1968), 417. A. J. Goss: in J. J. ), The Art and Science of Growing Crystals, J.

Preparations are carried out in either flow systems or in sealed tubes. The resulting oxidation state often depends on reaction temperatures. An extremely useful preparative method for dihalides is the direct interaction of the elements in alcohol or in ether METAL HALIDES 43 at room temperature. Oxides of the first row transition elements can be chlorinated directly. Often the oxide is mixed with carbon, which probably reduces the oxide to the metal, or a carbide, which is then chlorinated [27].

As can be expected for these layered crystal structures the electrical METAL HALIDES 37 conductivity is highly anisotropic, the electrical conductivity parallel to the layers in, for example, Cdi 2, Ag 2 F, and PbFCl being some 102 to 103 times larger than that normal to the layers. Several layered halides are sensitive to actinic radiation. Particularly sensitive compounds like Cdi 2 , Pbi 2 , and Bii 3 have been investigated thoroughly, and their photochemical behaviour is presently well understood [8-11].

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