By Kapil Raj (auth.)

Relocating sleek technological know-how demanding situations the assumption that smooth technology was once created uniquely within the West and was once consequently subtle in other places. via a close research of key moments within the background of technological know-how, it demonstrates the an important roles of move and intercultural come across for his or her emergence.

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43 The term ‘exceptional normal’ was coined by the Italian microhistorian Edoardo Grendi to refer to out-of-the-way historical cases which, because of 22 Relocating Modern Science to a big-picture account of the changing nature of this particular intercultural encounter—from the eighteenth-century pre-colonial context of informal networks based on individual relationships to the late-nineteenth-century colonial one of large, hierarchized institutions—and the specific problems of scientific knowledge construction to which they give rise.

18, no. 2 (1992), pp. 327–62; and idem, ‘Late Victorian Metrology and Its Instrumentation: A Manufactory of Ohms’, in Robert Bud and Susan E. Cozzens, eds, Invisible Connections: Instruments, Institutions, and Science (Bellingham, WA: SPIE, Optical Engineering Press, 1992), pp. 23–56. 46 See Daniel R. Headrick, The Tools of Empire: Technology and European Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century (New York: Oxford University Press, 1981); idem, The Tentacles of Progress: Technology Transfer in the Age of Imperialism, 1850–1940 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988); and Michael Adas, Machines as the Measure of Men (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990).

Robert Boyle’s (1627–91) General Heads for the Natural History of a Country (1692), which he advertised as ‘the only sure Foundation of Natural Philosophy’, is a classic of the genre. His instructions range from hydrographical and topographical measurement, the reckoning of latitude and longitude, ‘Specifick Gravity of the Air’, ‘Weights of the several Waters’, recording astronomical phenomena, climate, and ‘Soyls . . Minerals, Vegetables or Animals’ of the places visited, to the arts, mining and metal extraction techniques, laws, agriculture, economy, and medicine of their respective inhabitants— both Natives and Strangers, that have settled there; particularly their Stature, Shape, Features, Strength, Ingenuity, Dyet, Inclination, that seem not due to Education.

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