By Wolfram Manzenreiter
There is extra to jap activity than sumo, karate and baseball. This research of social game in Japan pursues a finished strategy in the direction of game as a particular cultural sphere on the intersection of physique tradition, political economic climate, and cultural globalization. Bridging the space among Bourdieu and Foucault, it explains the importance of the physique as a box of motion and an issue of discourse in molding topic and society in sleek Japan. extra in particular, it offers solutions to questions akin to how and to what reasons are politics of the physique articulated in Japan, fairly within the realm of game? what's the schedule of nation actors that increase politics aiming on the physique, and to what measure are political and societal goals impacted by way of advertisement and non-political actors? How are political judgements at the allocation of assets made, and what are their results for carrying possibilities and practices of the physique normally? with no neglecting the importance of recreation spectatorship, this examine takes a specific attitude by way of taking a look at recreation as a box of perform, ache and enjoyment.
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Additional info for Sport and Body Politics in Japan
Sport practice thus was closely related to the educational process of character building and the individual’s contribution to the good of the nation (Niehaus 2003; Inoue 1992, 1998). In the long run, Kanō’s concept was successful enough to inﬂuence many of the reinvented martial arts such as kendō, karate-dō or aikidō that were adapted to the basic scheme outlined by Kanō. The sportiﬁcation of martial arts thus began in Japan, albeit inspired by direct exchanges with Western educationalists, and reached its climax when far away from the Japanese soil, the decision fell to make Judo an Olympic sport.
The Daigenkai (1932) explained supōtsu as kōgai yūgi (outdoor games) or yagai undō kyōgi (outdoor athletics). The Great Heibonsha Encyclopedia from 1934–1935 already hinted at the conceptual problems of explaining a term used and instrumentalized for so many different purposes as physical education, mass training and hedonistic pleasure (Abe 1988:16–19). The fact that sport derived from the English language does not mean that play and physical exercise prior to the global spread of sport had been limited to the Anglo-Saxon cultural sphere.
Depending on the kind of sport involvement, the particular kind of sport, the social framework of sport participation or the distribution of standard social variables, sport participants tend to put more emphasis on either one or more of the following features with which sport is commonly associated: social integration, health care, enhancement of physical attractiveness, testing one’s physical limits or obtaining a sense of relaxation, entertainment or excitement. The quantitative research methods employed for the majority of these surveys are extremely helpful for understanding the comparatively high signiﬁcance of the social group by which individuals are socialized into sports.