By Dietz Otto Edzard

It kind of feels secure to assert that this "Sumerian Grammar" through Professor D.O. Edzard becomes the hot vintage reference within the box. it's an up to date, trustworthy advisor to the language of the Sumerians, the inventors of cuneiform writing within the past due 4th millennium B.C., and therefore crucial individuals to the excessive cultural common of the total of Mesopotamia and past. Following conventional traces, the "Grammar" describes normal features, origins, linguistic atmosphere, phonetics and phonology, morphology, syntax, and phrasing. Due cognizance is given to the symbiosis with Semitic Akkadian, with which Sumerian was once to shape a veritable linguistic region. With lucid factors of all technical linguistic idea. every one transliteration contains its English translation.

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Note: Texts frequently write 8 lugal instead of lugal 8. The inverted notation has been borrowed from accountancy texts where figures, for the sake of visual clarity are noted at the beginning of a line, and so written exactly one below the other. 7. A few adjectives appear in reduplicated form when the preceding substantive is plural: di∞gir-gal-gal “the great gods”; na4-di4(TUR)-di4 “small stones”. Here, one is reminded of the Akkadian pl. form of some adjec­ tives: rabbûtu, ße¢¢erùtu, arrakùtu.

Cf. correspondingly, PA = sàg (“to strike”), glossed sà-ag in ProtoEa 490 (MSL 14, 51), but s[i]-ig in Ea I 298 (MSL 14, 191). It is not clear to the author how this change of vowel came about. 2. Consonants When trying to establish the (minimal) set of Sumerian consonantal phonemes, we will once more base ourselves on loanwords in Akkadian and on sign-names as the most reliable sources. For stops (labial, dental, velar), there are three possible types of relation between a Sumerian word (as rendered in the translitera­ tion we derive from Proto-Ea and later lexical sources) and the cor­ responding Akkadian loanword: a) labial stops a1) P' : P a2) B : P apin pisan barag bala dub : : : : : epinnu “seeder plough” pis/“annu “box” parakku “dais” palû “term of office” †uppu “tablet” Note: For P' etc.

When Irikagina of Laga“ contrasts the “women of the past” (munusu4-bi-ta-ke4-ne) with the “present/nowadays women” (munus-u4-da-ene) (Ukg. 6 iii 20’ and 23’), we have a regular genitive compound in the first case: [munus-ubita-(a)k-ene], but an adjectival compound in the second case: [munus-uda-ene], lit. ]”. EDZARD_f4_12-22 4/28/03 2:51 PM Page 20   20 Here, u4-da (locative) is used like an adjective. After the locative [uda], the [e] of [ene] is not absorbed or elided. This can only mean that there was some kind of hiatus between the locative designation [a] and the pers.

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