By Roger D. Woodard

This 2008 ebook, derived from the acclaimed Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's old Languages, describes the traditional languages of Syria-Palestine and Arabia, for the benefit of scholars and experts operating in that quarter. every one bankruptcy of the paintings specializes in a person language or, in a few cases, a suite of heavily comparable forms of a language. supplying a whole descriptive presentation, every one of those chapters examines the writing system(s), phonology, morphology, syntax and lexicon of that language, and locations the language inside its right linguistic and historic context. the quantity brings jointly a world array of students, each one a number one expert in historic language research. whereas designed basically for students and scholars of linguistics, this paintings will end up beneficial to all whose stories take them into the area of historical language.

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Orthographic -φ), -y only appearing in the genitive. As with the independent and prefixed pronominal elements, most of the dual forms were apparently differentiated from identically written plural forms by vocalic pattern. Accusative enclitic pronouns on imperfect verbs show a great deal of variation because of assimilation to -n verbal forms and apparent reanalysis. For example, singular third masculine can appear as -h (= [-hu]); as -n (= [-annu] < [-an] + [hu]); as -nh (= [-annahu] < [anna] + [hu]); as -nn (= [-annannu]; apparently from [-anna] + [nnu], through reanalysis of [nnu] as a pronominal suffix); and finally even -nnn (apparently = [-annannannu], through double reanalysis).

The two most common adverbial suffixes attached to nouns are -m and -h. The first cannot be defined precisely, for it appears on virtually all parts of speech. One common occurrence is on adverbial nouns, perhaps only augmenting the adverbial accusative. ” Note that, in contrast to Hebrew where the hˆe is written without mapp¯ıq, the Ugaritic -h is consonantal. 3 Conjunctions The most common coordinating conjunction is w-, capable of linking phrases at all levels (word, clause, sentence, paragraph).

The concept of transitivity is not a useless one in ˘ Semitics, for not only do certain verbs take complements that correspond to what in other languages would be direct objects, but distinctively marked passive forms, used almost exclusively for verbs that in other languages would be qualified as transitive, are common. , G-stem transitive verbs, D-stem, and S-stem) had passive forms that were differentiated from the active by ablaut (for a contrary view on the G-passive finite forms, see Verreet 1986:324–330; brief refutation in Tropper 1993a:478–479).

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