By Kenneth I. Berns

The Parvoviridae were of accelerating curiosity to reseachers some time past decade. Their small measurement and easy constitution have made them ame nable to specified physiochemical research, and from this paintings rather exact info has resulted that has signficantly elevated our un derstanding of the biology of those viruses. It has turn into transparent that the Parvoviridae are of curiosity not just for his or her personal sake, but in addition simply because their relative simplicity renders them helpful probes within the examine of the biology of host cells and of alternative DNA viruses with which they have interaction. The Dependovirus genus, for example, includes the faulty adeno-as sociated viruses (AA V), which require a coinfection with both an advert enovirus or a herpesvirus for efficient multiplication. experiences of AA V, hence, unavoidably impinge on our knowing of the keep watch over of macromolecular synthesis by means of the helper virus. equally AA V has been said to inhibit the oncogenicity of either adeno-and herpesviruses and has been used as a probe of mechanism in those cases besides. eventually, AA V establishes latent infections in vivo and is the one mammalian DNA virus the place a similar version procedure has been confirmed in mobilephone tradition. the program has allowed research of the mechanism of latent an infection on the molecular point.

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1975a, Study of the fine structure of adeno-associated virus DNA with bacterial endonucleases, 1. Virol. 16:712. , 1975b, Detection of adenoassociated virus-specific nucleotide sequences in DNA isolated from latently infected Detroit 6 cells, Virology 68:556. C. Ward and P. I, p. 179, Cold Spring Harbor, New York. , 1979, Adeno-associated virus DNA replication, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 43:78l. , 1975, Potentiation of an adenovirus-associated virus by herpes simplex virus type 2 transformed cells, 1.

Such results are important considering the fact that the nondefective parvoviruses have been incriminated in a number of in utero and neonatal disease syndromes. , 1960; Kilham, 1961). , 1973 Lwe were prompted to see if any correlation could be found between AAV infection and the occurrence of reproductive failure or teratogenic effects in man. Therefore, a series of about 80 paired sera from mothers with histories of reproduction failure, stillbirth, or spontaneous abortion were tested. No significant difference in the frequency or level of antibody to AAV 1,2, or 3 was found (Blacklow and Hoggan, unpublished results).

The order proceeds, E1 ~ E2a ~ E4. Because injection of E4 mRNA alone was sufficient for AAV DNA and capsid production, it was concluded that E4 gene expression alone provides the only necessary helper function for AAV. Thus E1 and E2A participate in a regulatory cascade which, for the purposes of AAV replication, result in expression of the E4 gene. In these studies a role for VAI was not found, but its gene product may have a role in regulating the quantitative level of AAV production. , 1972).

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