By Ayesha Jalal

In 1940 the All-India Muslim League orchestrated the call for for self sustaining Muslim states in India. Seven years later Pakistan was once created amidst a communal holocaust of unheard of proportions. targeting the All-India Muslim League and its chief, Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the only Spokesman assesses the position of spiritual communalism and provincialism in shaping the circulation for Pakistan.

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But complete responsibility at the centre was still something for the future; the executive was not responsible to the legislature and many of the central subjects were 'reserved'. By granting provincial autonomy and beating a retreat to the centre, the British planned to give autonomy to their friends and collaborators, and to retain control at the top. Encouraging provincial ambitions and keeping the centrefirmlyin British hands was not a strategy for getting out of India, but a way of staying on.

By stressing the need for communal solidarity the United Muslim party hoped to undermine the supra-communal policies of its rival. (Shila Sen, Muslim Politics in Bengal: 1937-1947 (New Delhi, 1976), p. ), Correspondence, p. 23. Huq, described by the Governor as the 'most uncertain quantity in Muslim polities', 'devoid of principle and trusted by nobody', made much of his agrarian programme, but 26 The Sole Spokesman Bengali Muslims remained at sixes and sevens at the eve of the 1937 provincial elections.

Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto from Larkana was another important man in Sind but the Governor had failed to get Ghulam Hussain and Bhutto to work together. With many parties, Sind prepared for the elections in a festive mood. A Muslim businessman from Karachi, Seth Haji Abdullah Haroon, formed the United 'party', a favourite name when unity was difficult to find. It had a non-communal programme, and managed to win Bhutto over. 52 In 1936, Jinnah tried but failed to create a League Parliamentary Board in Sind.

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