By A. D. Le Claire (auth.), N. B. Hannay (eds.)

The final quarter-century has been marked through the tremendous fast progress of the solid-state sciences. They comprise what's now the biggest subfield of physics, and the fabrics engineering sciences have likewise flourished. And, enjoying an lively position all through this colossal sector of technological know-how and engineer­ ing were very huge numbers of chemists. but, even supposing the function of chemistry within the solid-state sciences has been a necessary one and the solid-state sciences have, in flip, made huge, immense contributions to chemical concept, solid-state chemistry has now not been well-known via the final physique of chemists as an important subfield of chemistry. Solid-state chemistry isn't even good outlined as to content material. a few, for instance, might have it comprise merely the quantum chemistry of solids and could reject thermodynamics and part equilibria; this can be nonsense. Solid-state chemistry has many points, and one of many reasons of this Treatise is to assist outline the sector. maybe the main common attribute of solid-state chemistry, and one that is helping differentiate it from solid-state physics, is its specialise in the chemical composition and atomic configuration of genuine solids and at the dating of composition and constitution to the chemical and actual houses of the cast. genuine solids tend to be tremendous advanced and express virtually limitless kind of their compositional and structural features.

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From Eq. " They contain nothing but measurable quantities, and so can be tested experimentally. For the few systems for which all the data are available, the results are quite satisfactory, bearing in mind the difficulties of achieving high precision in measuring chemical diffusion coefficients, especially DA and DB. References 34 contain graphs illustrating the measure of agreement that can be achieved, comparing a measured jJ with the values calculated from DA *, DB*' and Ya. , small Ca) Ya is constant and the thermodynamic factor becomes unity.

93) in the form ofEq. (91), with (94) 42 Diffusion and 3N Sm = k L In(v i O/v/) (95) i=2 Although Eq. (95) has occasionally been used to estimate values of Sm' lack of information on the frequencies precludes much use being made of these two expressions in Eq. (92). F or general discussions of diffusion in simple solids Eq. (92) is mostly used as it stands, with the assumption that the Debye frequency VD is an adequate approximation to v. The most notable applications of the more complete equations for w have been to consider the isotope effect in diffusion, to which we now turn.

A plot oflog(Ctz/CP) versus log Ctz can then be shown to give a straight line of slope (Dtz/DP) - 1, just the quantity needed in (100) and (101). The only requirements then for a measurement of the mass effect are a pair of isotopes that can be discriminated when present together (by differences in half-life or in energies of radiation) and accurate measurements of Ctz and Cp. Distance and time measurements are not required, as in normal diffusion experiments, and for this reason E(n) can be determined with some precision, to within a few percent under good conditions.

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