By Bruce Riedel

Pakistan and the us were locked in a perilous include for many years. Successive American presidents from either events have pursued slim momentary pursuits within the South Asian state, and plenty of of the ensuing regulations proved counterproductive within the long-term, contributing to political instability and a radicalized public. This historical past has helped set the degree for the worldwide jihad confronting a lot of the realm this day. In lethal include, Bruce Riedel explores the forces in the back of those advancements, explaining how and why the historical past of Pakistan-U.S. family has opened up because it has. He explains what the USA can do now to fix the wear and the way it will possibly steer clear of making related errors in facing extremist forces in Pakistan and past. Riedel is one among the United States s preferable professionals on U.S. safety, South Asia, and terrorism, and he helped to craft President Obama s 2009 speech bearing on the Pakistan-Afghanistan borderlands because the most threatening sector of the realm. He follows up the hunt for al Qaeda, his influential 2008 research of the phobia community s ideology and management, with a sober, authoritative, and infrequently alarming examine the historical past, value, and present position of Pakistan, epicenter of the worldwide jihad stream, starting with the heritage of U.S.-Pakistan family because the partitioning of the subcontinent in 1947. the connection among Pakistan and the USA is an engaging but muddled tale, meandering via classes of friendship and enmity, symbiosis and mistrust: it s no ask yourself that individuals in either international locations are careworn. lethal embody explains how the USA, on a number of events, really helped the foes of democracy in Pakistan and aided within the improvement of the very enemies it truly is now battling within the sector. The publication seeks to resolve this paradox, revealing and reading the tortuous direction of kin among very assorted international locations, which stay, in lots of methods, caught with one another.

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Indd 19 11/29/10 9:28 AM 20╇ /╇ zia ’ s jihad With the overthrow, Zia transformed Pakistan and altered the course of its future more than anyone since Jinnah. He can also rightly be called the grandfather of global Islamic jihad. Born on August 12, 1924, to a father who worked in army general headquarters in Delhi, Zia had military ties from the outset. In 1944 he joined the British army in India and fought with its Indian forces in Italy against the Nazis. Between 1962 and 1964 he received training at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, then returned home to fight in the 1965 war with India as a tank commander.

Militants from around the Islamic world—from Syria, Iraq, Algeria, and elsewhere— were migrating to Pakistan, mainly to Peshawar, to help the mujahedin fight in the “holy war” against Soviet forces. According to Robert Gates, then Casey’s deputy director for intelligence and the man responsible for all intelligence analysis, Most fought with the Islamic fundamentalist Muj groups, particularly that headed by Abdul Rasul Sayyaf. We examined ways to increase their participation, perhaps in the form of some sort of “international brigade,” but nothing came of it.

Washington strongly opposed further proliferation of nuclear weapons in the world and urged Pakistan not to seek the bomb. The new American president in 1977, Jimmy Carter, sought to rejuvenate the nonproliferation regime begun by John F. Kennedy but got nowhere with Islamabad. The relationship soured further when Zia overthrew Bhutto. Carter rightly saw the coup as a serious setback for democracy in Pakistan and was particularly anxious that Zia not compound the problem by executing Bhutto. He appealed to Zia repeatedly not to go forward with the trumped-up charges and the trial.

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