By Jack D. Maser

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Overall, the findings indicated that the process of external respiration, a skeletal-motor activity on which almost all levels of internal respiration and energy exchange depend, is regulated and learned in precise ways in relation to movement controlled, sensory feedback factors. The effects of feedback delays on breath control movements suggested in addition that the rhythmic timing and learning of external respiration can be altered by changing the temporal factors linking skeletal-motor activity and sensory inputs.

Chemical energy production in cellular metabolism depends, upon two major processes: the breakdown of carbohydrates and the consumption of oxygen. When we speak of chemical energy in the cell, we essentially mean one specific molecule, a compound called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). As shown in Fig. 3, ATP can be considered as the end product of cellular energy production. It is essential for such activities as amino acid synthesis, protein synthesis, carbohydrate breakdown, muscle action, and production of body heat, as well as a host of other processes.

As we show below, the primary locus of energy production for behavior is not in the brain or in the viscera, but in the muscle cell itself. The basic mechanism of energy production is not interoceptive drive stimulation of the gut or afferent interoceptive excitation of the brain synapses: rather, it is a feedback control mechanism within the contracting muscle cell which has the capability of also regulating all other metabolic and neural mechanisms related to metabolism and to integrating these energy production mechanisms with variable parameters of motor skill.

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