By G. Landmann, L. Bouhot-Delduc (auth.), Guy Landmann, Maurice Bonneau, Michèle Kaennel (eds.)

Forest decline turned an issue of public and medical difficulty in France in 1983 while conifers within the Vosges mountains have been discovered to convey strange crown deterioration. An impassioned controversy on a supposedly huge scale wooded area illness was once then in complete swing in important Europe. A co-ordinated learn programme entitled DEFORPA ("Deperissement des For~ts et pollutants AtmospMrique") used to be introduced in 1984. This programme ran from 1984 to 1991 and a couple of tasks are nonetheless in development. The Programme was once backed by means of 3 French ministries (Enviroument, Agriculture and Forestry, learn and Technologyl), a number of nation organisations, a number of nearby specialists and the fee of the ecu groups (DO xn and DG VI). in the beginning, emphasis used to be completely laid at the figuring out of woodland decline within the mountainous components - simply because harm used to be most blatant there - with regards to usual and man-made elements. pollution used to be given excessive yet no longer overwhelming precedence. hence, the DEFORPA Programme was once no longer in its essence a nation-wide overview of pollution results, in contrast to a couple of nationwide acidification study programmes in Europe and North the USA. in the course of. the programme, notwithstanding, the components of shock increased. specifically, learn into water acidification within the Vosges mountains used to be constructed in parallel with the DEFORPA Programme, and attainable eutrophication of the floor plant life in northeastern France grew to become the topic of recent research.

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Ed. Jean-Pierre de Monza, Paris, pp 37-43 Ground Monitoring of Forest Health 37 Becker M (1989) The role of climate on present and past vitality of silver fIr forests in the Vosges mountains of northeastern France. Can J For Res 19: 1110-1117 Becker M, Charles PJ, Delatour C, Lanier L (1978) A propos du deperissement du sapin dans les Vosges alsaciennes. INRA Nancy, Internal report, p 5 Becker M, Bert GD, Bouchon J, Dupouey JL, Picard JF, Ulrich E (1995a) Long-term changes in forest productivity in northeastern France: the dendroecological approach.

1992; all species having been taken into account and all trees having been assessed by each team, allowing direct calculation of correlations between all teams in those two exercises). However, the consistency was lower than that obtained for the two French teams which took part in the international exercises (23% of unexplained variance for France in Bouhot et al. 1992, and 30% in Montoya et al. 1992). The good national coherence obtained in these international calibration exercises could be explained by the fact that most of the national teams were composed of trainers or very experienced observers.

Evidence available from the calibration exercise suggests that the severity of health condition assessment in France is one of the lowest in Europe. Using average differences between the assessments by surveyors from Baden-Wfirttemberg, the United Kingdom and France, Innes et a1. (1993) suggested that the actual mean defoliation values in these countries (regions) may be much less different than hitherto believed. On the other hand, the· rather late period of assessment in France may act to increase the proportion of trees showing discolouration.

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