By Gary Watson
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Extra resources for Free Will (Oxford Readings in Philosophy)
Ch. 4 (Works. 600). 1 Summa The%gici/. First Part of the Second Part. quo vi ('On the Voluntary ~'nd Inv~luntarY')1 Jonathan Edwards. Freedom University Library. 1912). ch. 6. 4 j (4 the Will (New Haven. 1957); G. E. Moore, EthiCS (Hom4 I HUMAN FREEDOM AND THE SELF 27 chosen otherwise, then he would have done otherwise. What the murderers saw, let us suppose, along with his beliefs and desires, caused him to fire the shot; yet he was such that if, just then, he had chosen or decided not to fire the shot, then he would not have fired it.
My argument was that (iv) is logically consistent with the conjunction of (v) S could have done A only ifS had willed to do A and (vi) It is not the case that S had willed to do A which together entail (vii) It is not the case that S could have done A. Since the conjunction of (iv), (v), and (vi) is consistent and entails the denial of (iii), it follows that (iv) does not entail (iii). If it did, the conjunction would be inconsistent. Aune objects to this. 4 He then adds that if my argument is not to be absolutely worthless, I must offer some argument for the consistency of (iv), (v), and (Vi).
Coste de Ia Necessite et de Ia Contingence' (1707) in Opera Philosophica, ed. Erdmann, 447-9. 34 RODERICK M. CHISHOLM terms 'necessary' and 'contingent', the proposition 'In all these circumstances taken together I shall choose to go out', may be said to be contingent and not necessary, and in another sense of these terms, it may be said to be necessary and not contingent. But the sense in which the proposition may be said to be contingent, according to Leibniz, is only this: there is no logical contradiction involved in denying the proposition.