By Tirthankar Roy

Cross-cultural alternate has characterised the commercial lifetime of India seeing that antiquity. Its lengthy beach has afforded handy entry to Asia and Africa, and buying and selling partnerships shaped within the alternate of commodities starting from textiles to army know-how and opium to indigo. In a trip throughout 2,000 years, this captivating publication written by way of a number one South Asian historian, describes the binds of alternate, migration, and funding among India and the remainder of the area, exhibiting how altering styles of globalization reverberated on monetary coverage, politics, and political ideology inside India. alongside the way in which, the publication asks 3 significant questions. is that this a very Indian tale? while did the massive turning issues occur? And is it attainable to differentiate the fashionable from the pre-modern development of trade? those questions invite a brand new method of the examine of Indian heritage through putting the area squarely on the middle of the narrative. this can be worldwide background written on India's phrases and, as such, the e-book invitations South Asian, Indian, and worldwide historians to reconsider either their background and their methodologies.

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By comparison, some of the trans-Himalayan routes were very important commercially and politically. The trans-Himalayan trade was a complex combination of intersecting routes. In the early nineteenth century, the British Indian civilians, frontier customs officers, and European travelers who produced the first systematic body of knowledge about the Himalayan commercial world found that the plains of the Indus and the Ganges were linked with Persia, Central Asia, Tibet, and China via a cluster of mountain passes.

500 bce–1200 ce. North and Central South East West 500 bce–0 ce Pre–300 bce: Mahajanapada or a cluster of settlements. 320–185 bce: Mauryan Empire. 200 bce to early ce: Indo-Greeks or Bactrians rule the upper Indus valley and eastern Afghanistan 320–185 bce: Mauryan Empire, capital Pataliputra (present Patna in Bihar). 185–73 bce: Sunga. 320–185 bce: Mauryan Empire. Post-185 bce: Satavahana control in present Maharashtra. 0–500 ce c. 50–400 ce: Kusanas, a northwest-Persian tribe, establish a state in Bactria, followed by an empire ruling the western part of North India.

States deeply affected the process of spatial and market integration. Improvements in transportation and communication technology eased geographical constraints. To each such external circumstance, merchants, workers, professionals, and artisans in India responded resourcefully. In the eighteenth century, their response involved fine cloth; in the nineteenth century, indentured labor; and in the late twentieth century, knowledge goods. How they responded Introduction: India and Global History 19 depended on externally induced changes in the costs of trade and on what goods and services the world wanted to buy from the Indians.

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