By Brian P. Clarke

While the function of the laity within the nationalist awakening is often well-known, their half within the circulation for non secular renewal is generally minimized. Initiative at the a part of the laity has been concept to have existed purely outdoor the church, the place it remained a troubling and now and then rebel strength. Clarke revises this photograph of the position of the laity in church and group. He examines the wealthy associational lifetime of the laity, which ranged from nationalist and fraternal institutions self sustaining of the church to devotional and philanthropic institutions affiliated with the church. institutions either in and out the church fostered ethnic cognizance in several yet complementary ways in which led to a cultural consensus according to denominational loyalty. via those institutions, lay women and men built an institutional base for the activism and initiative that formed either their church and their group. Clarke demonstrates that lay activists performed a pivotal position in remodeling the non secular lifetime of the community.

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Additional resources for Piety and Nationalism: Lay Voluntary Associations and the Creation of an Irish-Catholic Community in Toronto, 1850-1895

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What crimes were the Irish likely to be arrested for? The published returns on arrests do not provide this information, since references to the national background of those arrested are not cross-tabulated with another list of references to the offences for which these people were charged. Nevertheless, a general trend can be detected in these statistics. For example, in 1865, of the 1,108 women arrested, of whom 749 were Irish, 41 were charged with assault and 104 with larceny or suspected larceny.

Irish-Catholic ratepayers, who by any standard had achieved economic success in the form of house occupancy, almost two-fifths of them were in unskilled occupations. Broad categories, however, could well obscure the occupational diversity of unskilled Irish Catholics. 32 Unfortunately, it is not possible to distinguish the varying grades of labourer: some may have had more or less secure employment in factories and warehouses, and others could probably count on regular, if seasonal, employment with Irish-Catholic contractors in the building trades.

The role of the priest, Bishop Charbonnel insisted, was to edify the people "by giving a shining example of religious [life] in the worship of God & the performance of sacred rites ... "17 This emphasis on the sacramental nature of the priesthood raised the status of the clergy and at the same time separated them from the laity. The replacement of the trousers and frock coat by the soutane and Roman collar was the most visible confirmation that the clergy were a distinct order. "18 Ultimately, the new conception of priesthood depended on the enforcement of ecclesiastical discipline along ultramontane lines.

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