By John Nash, Alex F. McCalla

Constructing international locations have a lot better leverage within the Doha around negotiations, due no less than partially to their huge and becoming percentage of global alternate. still, it is still obvious even if this impact might be translated right into a ultimate contract that's really extra development-friendly. This quantity takes up choose problems with significance to constructing international locations, together with the results of the idea that of the ''multifunctionality'' of agriculture, the impression on industry entry of sanitary and phytosanitary laws, the position of exact and differential therapy for constructing international locations within the negotiations, and what classes will be realized from prior alternate reform reviews.

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Additional info for Reforming Agricultural Trade for Developing Countries: Key Issues for a Pro-Development Outcome of the Doha Round Negotiations

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7 An innovative, if controversial element of the URAA rules on market access is the special safeguard provision that protects goods subject to tariffication from surges in imports or from the effects of falling world prices. 8 Equally controversial has been the administration of the many tariff rate quotas in agriculture, under which countries specify import quantities that incur duties below the bound rates. Including the WTO banana case, which raised many other issues, only three complaints have addressed administration of tariff rate quotas.

Developing countries can exempt a somewhat larger set of policy instruments from commitment and reduction. It was recognized that government assistance for agricultural and rural development is an integral part of the development programs of developing countries, and investment subsidies for agriculture and input subsidies for low-income or resource-poor producers in these countries are exempt from reductions. In addition, support to encourage diversification away from illicit narcotic crops is exempt.

2). Many agricultural policy developments underlay this phenomenon, and high world market prices for some agricultural commodities during the URAA implementation period (in particular for cereals in 1995 and 1996) also helped. Moreover, there was “water” in the export subsidy commitments, as the base period chosen for setting the constraints was characterized by particularly large expenditures. Nonetheless, based on the aggregate quantitative experience with the export subsidy commitments, this part of the URAA appears to have been implemented with few problems.

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