By Cristoforo S. Bertuglia, Giuliano. Bianchi, Alfredo Mela

Recent advancements within the box of city research and administration are investigated during this e-book. it's a wide-ranging selection of essays at the topic drawn from a long term undertaking and seminar, held in Italy, to study the state-of-the-art and speculate at the destiny impact at the "sciences of the town" of the complexity idea. Of specific curiosity is the diversity of issues of view, usually contrasting, and the try and transcend the normal ways to the research, and the making plans of town. whereas focussing almost always at the eu (and specifically Italian) context, the dialogue is of basic relevance and beneficial to someone excited by the customers for town within the new millenium.

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An 'organisational suggestion' from outside is elaborated by the system, which is capable of evolving towards states of different complexity. The analogy with social and human phenomena is clear: from the growth of the individual, to the development of the species, of societies, economic systems, mass phenomena, etc. Self-organisation provides an important stimulus to establish an analogy between the natural and social sciences: "social changes consist of dynamic processes of selforganisation with spontaneous formation of increasingly subtle and complicated structures.

The introduction of fractals in science, and in particular mathematics, constitutes an important step in the direction of the search for a geometrical language suitable for the description of irregularities in the real world. ), whereas fractal geometry derives from real forms found in nature. The phenomena of deterministic chaos and, more in general, complexity, makes use of geometrical representations characterised by singularity at each point, like fractals, which have now become a working tool for describing forms impossible to represent in terms of regular geometrical figures, and an example of this new way of thinking.

The first question we need to ask is: what influence can the use and diffusion of information systems of this kind have on the overall methodological evolution? e. tools whose use allows us to obtain some kind of 'information gain' . The second question is: how does the construction, use and diffusion of information systems affect the context of application of methodologies and, more in general, the approach to urban problems? What is the nature of the relationship between information systems, methodologies, theories and society?

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