By B. P. Setchell (auth.), Richard Ivell, Adolf-Friedrich Holstein (eds.)

THE FASCINATION The male germ telephone is the one mobile of the human organism that leaves the physique while it has completed its ultimate, hugely subtle constitution and homes. The male germ mobile is designed for one objective in simple terms: to arrive the feminine gametes and to fertilize them. a number of the phases within the improvement of the male germ mobile are characterised through proliferative levels, by way of the recombination of the maternal and paternal chromosomes, and via the differentiation and improvement of a really expert delivery car, the spermato­ zoon. moreover, the institution of a unique pool of stem cells, the spermatogonia, promises the continuity of the sperm-generation strategy from puberty to previous age. THE destiny OF THE MALE GERM mobilephone The future of any person germ mobile is dependent upon a software that we all know purely in fragments. at the one hand each human male is ready to produce many billions of germ cells in his lifetime, but the opportunity of any unmarried sperm achieving and fertilizing the feminine germ cellphone is particularly infrequent. A fertility disturbance implies that someplace through the complex taking part in out of the germ mobilephone software blunders are made, and this system fails. it's nonetheless a incontrovertible fact that greater than 50% of guys providing with male issue infertility must be clinically determined as idiopathic, principally as a result of our lack of information and conse­ quent loss of acceptable diagnostic tools.

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Inl ... • • • • ou ... • ... • • D1J • 0J4 - · --DlJ P. H. ID131D141D1SID161 I AZFal IJFbl 5 azoospermic patients 6 azoospermic patients I AZFcl 21 8zoospermic/oligozoospermic patients Figure 2. Actual survey of the number of microdeletions occurring "de novo" in 700 consecutive individuals with idiopathic azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia analysed in my laboratory between 1992-1996. 4. CANDIDATE AZF GENES ENCODE TESTIS SPECIFIC RRM-PROTEINS The "RNA-Recognition Motif' (RRM) is an evolutionary conserved protein motif containing 80-100 amino acids present in a large number of proteins interacting with RNA.

This divergence results in a protein structure of the DAZ and SPGY proteins divergent from that of SPGYLA and Dazla in the C-terminal region. Loss of boule function in the Drosophila male results in azoospermia. , 1996). It is therefore assumed that also Dazla in the mouse, or SPGYLA in human fulfill a meiotic function in spermatogenesis. , 1996). , 1996; Dazla: Yen et al. , 1996). This unnecessary complexity needs to be resolved in the near future. Gene mutations for SPGYLA have not yet been found in our patient collective of men with idiopathic azoospermia.

No postmeiotic germ cell has ever been observed in their testicular biopsies. , 1996). This would suggest that one should screen in the clinic for possible deletion of AZFa,b,c in idiopathic azoospermic men as soon as possible in order to support a qualified prediction for the success of testicular sperm aspiration experiments in the testis of azoospermic men asking for in-vitro fertilization by Intra-Cytop1asmic-Sperm-Injection (lCSI). 28 P. H. 2. Mutation Frequency of AZFa, AZFb, AZFc in Idiopathic Sterile Men The frequency of the observed AZF deletion events in proximal and middle Yq II (AZFa and AZFb) is the same, ranging below 1% in men with idiopathic azoospermia (Fig.

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