By Guy P. Brasseur (auth.), Guy P. Brasseur (eds.)

This e-book provides a precis of the lectures given on the NATO complex technology Institute (ASI) which happened at Val Morin, Quebec, Canada, 4-15 September, 1995. This summer season tuition provided a superb chance to debate key clinical questions concerning the stratosphere and its value for the weather process. nearly eighty five scholars and 15 teachers from 19 international locations attended the ASI which was once subsidized via SPARC (Stratospheric procedures and Their position in Climate), a undertaking of the realm weather learn Programme. the aim of the ASI was once to give really instructional lectures instead of hugely really good or technical talks. on the convention, mornings have been dedicated to primary displays whereas brief illustrative talks got within the afternoon. The booklet offers a precis of the 2 varieties of lectures. We have been lucky to enlist the participation of remarkable specialists within the box of atmospheric technology and ideal academics. scholars have been strongly inspired to actively perform a variety of actions in the course of the summer time institution; for instance, the scholars have been requested to summarize the lectures given through the lecturers, and more often than not, the chapters provided during this e-book have been written through small teams of scholars and reviewed by way of the academics. throughout the tuition, scholars had additionally the chance to provide posters that defined their own learn. those lecture notes are divided into 3 significant parts.

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Planetary waves (PW) propagate upward strongly in the winter but are weak during the summer. Synoptic waves are trapped near the ground. Amplitudes of different classes of waves are shown in Fig. 4 as functions of altitude. (ii) Meridional structure: global modes-Rossby waves, tides; equatorial modes-Kelvin waves, Rossby-gravity waves. (iii) Vertical structure: External (vertically trapped) modes have exponential structure in vertical, internal modes are sinusoidal (propagating) in vertical. PLANETARY WAVES We consider a simplified case: barotropic flow between two horizontal surfaces of constant potential temperature, absolute vorticity conserved.

Finally, equation (4) describes conservation of total mass for a fluid parcel (also named the mass continuity equation). The reader is referred to Andrews, Holton and Leovy (1987), Chapter 3, for a detailed derivation of this set of equations. The particular definition of some of the variables will become clearer in the next section. In particular, the G term should only be seen as a simple forcing on the system, and its relation to wave motions and drag will be more fully explained in Sections C and D.

Similarly, positive horizontal momentum is transported upwards by waves with downward and westward phase propagation. -W Longitude Figure 6. Longitude-height cross section showing westward propagating gravity wave excited from below. Note downward and westward phase propagation, downward momentum flux, and upward energy flux (after Holton, 1992). A similar expression for the dispersion relationship can be obtained for a non-zero zonal mean wind, u(z) by replacing w by the Doppler shifted frequency expression for the group velocity then reveals that as m -+ 00 w= W - uk.

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