By Geoffrey Symcox

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By 1648 the Emperor had clearly been defeated, and France and its allies, notably Sweden, were in the ascendant. The treaty reflects this situation. France's allies received favorable treatment. Clauses LXIV through LXVII sanctify the "Germanic Liberties" to be enjoyed by the states and princes, their independence from Imperial control being guaranteed by France. Clause XLIX, which grants toleration to the Calvinists in Germany, is another victory for the French, who had supported them against the Emperor.

Although the Russian system disposed of far greater reserves of manpower, and so did not have to call up anything like the proportion of men drafted in Sweden, the principle was the same. In this way Peter the Great was able to tap Russia's vastly superior manpower, and his peasant levies ultimately defeated the Swedes. By the time he died, the Russian army was 2 I 2,ooo strong. Probably the most famous of these systems of partial conscription was that of Prussia. The basis of the army, large though it was, was recruited by voluntary enlistment (although the term is used rather loosely) at home and abroad.

According to this foundation of reciprocal amity and a general amnesty, all and every one of the Electors of the Sacred Roman Empire, the princes, and states, (therein comprehending the nobility, which depend immediately on the Empire), their vassals, subjects, citizens, inhabitants ... shall be fully re-established on the one side and the other, in the ecclesiastic or lay state, which they enjoyed, or could lawfully enjoy, notwithstanding any alterations which have been made in the meantime to the contrary.

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