By George L. Lucas M.D., Francis W. Cooke Ph.D., Elizabeth A. Friis Ph.D. (auth.)

A PRIMER OF BIOMECHANICS is the 1st quantity of its variety to give the rules of biomechanics with a hugely scientific orientation. Dr. Lucas and his colleagues (specialists in biomechanics) have assembled a pragmatic consultant using case displays to make this very technical and intricate fabric palatable to the orthopaedic resident and practitioner. This "user-friendly" textual content is extra better by way of good built-in chapters protecting the entire easy fabrics and the newest info of this swiftly evolving box from the viewpoint of its necessary software. every one case presentation is by means of a close, yet simply comprehensible clarification of the biomechanical ideas concerned and comprises protocols for therapy. This quantity is a must have for orthopaedic citizens and practitioners.

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Even though one cannot detect a difference in the way metals behave by pullin g them in one 's bare hands, special techniques exist (see chapter 12) that allow measurement of slight, but often very important, differences in stiffnesses of material s. 1 Elastic Moduli of Some Common Orthopaedic Materials The elastic modul us or stiffness of orthopaedic material s is an important factor in determining the response of the material in a structure and in design. For example, stainless steel is about twice as stiff as pure titanium.

Thus the force in the biceps is roughly 10 times that held in the hand . An important technique used in solving this problem was to recognize that the joint reaction force , J r , creates no moment about the joint axis because its moment arm is zero . Therefore, when the moments were summ ed about the joint axis, the only unknown force to appear was the biceps force , F b , which we were able to solve for directly. Having determ ined F b and noting that all the force s are acting in the y direction, we can now solve for J, by setting the sum of the force in the y direction equal to zero .

10). 10). 10. Determination of the unknown force between the patella and the condyles, Fe' when the quadriceps force, Fa' and the patellar tendon pull, Fp can be estimated . Only F Q and F T have components in the y direction, and, because this is a static case, these y components must be of equal magnitude and opposite direction: The sum of the components in the x direction can now be written as or Because F Q and F T are equal, we can write Because e is approximately half the angle of flexion of the knee, Fe equals approximately -2FQ cos(/2), where is the angle of flexion.

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