By David W. Baker

Those 3 brief prophetic books of the previous testomony every one include a twin message. On one hand are messages of approaching judgment---for all peoples at the Day of the Lord, for an enemy of Israel, and for Israel herself. however are messages of significant hope---of the pouring out of God's Spirit, of recovery and renewal, and of a coming Messiah. putting judgment and desire jointly in one of these demeanour could appear paradoxical to a modern approach. however the whole message of those prophets supplies a fuller photo of God---who despises and rightly judges sin and uprising, yet who additionally lovingly invitations humans to come back to him in order that he may possibly bestow his tremendous grace and advantages. it's a message no much less well timed this day than while those books have been first written, and David W. Baker skillfully bridges the centuries in assisting believers at the present time comprehend and observe it. such a lot Bible commentaries take us on a one-way journey from our global to the area of the Bible. yet they go away us there, assuming that we will be able to by some means make the go back trip on our personal. They specialize in the unique which means of the passage yet do not speak about its modern software. the data they provide is valuable---but the activity is just part performed! The NIV software remark sequence is helping carry either halves of the interpretive activity jointly. This exact, award-winning sequence exhibits readers how one can convey an old message into our postmodern context. It explains not just what the Bible intended but in addition the way it speaks powerfully this present day.

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C. Joel’s father is Pethuel. His name means “a youth of/belonging to El,” which reflects his parents’ understanding of the divine source of offspring. He is unknown apart from this reference. ” That name is used both for a person (the father of Rebekah and Laban, Gen. 22:22–23; 24:15, 24, 47, 50; 28:5) and an unidentified place (1 Chron. 4:30; cf. Josh. 19:4). The textual evidence for the switch is not compelling. , 2 Sam. 7:4–5; 1 Kings 22; Amos 7:9). , Isa. 6:9–10; Jer. 2:4; Amos 5). Joel’s message is to the latter, to the nation represented by various strands in society, from religious and political leaders through production workers to inebriates.

See among the Dead Sea Scrolls, 11QT 47:6, 13; 4Q370. 52. Cf. also 1:12, where the same theme had been expressed with different words. 53. <ênênû (“our eyes”) / ,elôhênû (“our God”). 54. Of the 25 words and particles, 14 are not repeated anywhere else in Joel. Four are used only here in the Old Testament. 55. Simkins, Yahweh’s Activity, 146–47, suggests leaving the first clause untranslated. 53 Joel 1:1–20 one word occurs more than once, and it could mean either “under” or “instead of,” so provides little help.

2:19), suggest another place for food storage. Thus, these two clauses are in synonymous parallelism, with the cause of the devastation explained in the final clause of the verse. With an exclamation of wonder, the writer notes in 1:18 that the domesticated animals, important for Israelite household and cultic economy,61 also feel the negative effects. Those affected are first cited with the more general designation “cattle” (1:20; 2:22; Gen. 8:1; Ex. 20:9; Deut. 14:4),62 then with two specific subcategories—herds of cattle and flocks of sheep.

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