By Emanuel Tov

Considering the fact that its preliminary e-book, Textual feedback of the Hebrew Bible has validated itself because the necessary authoritative textbook and reference at the topic. during this completely revised 3rd version, Emanuel Tov has included the insights of the final ten years of scholarship, together with new views at the biblical texts one of the useless Sea Scrolls, all of that have now been released. listed below are elevated discussions of the contribution of textual feedback to biblical exegesis and of the function of scribes within the transmission of the textual content. The advent and references during the publication were completely revised with the start scholar of textual feedback in brain.

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The Samaritan Pentateuch (m) is an ancient text of the Torah written in a special form of the "early" Hebrew script and preserved by the Samaritan community. Its basis was a Jewish text, very much like the so-called p r e - S a m a r i t a n texts from Qumran (see pp. 97-100). One of these texts was used as the basis for the Samaritan Pentateuch, and to this text the Samaritans added a thin layer of ideological and phonological changes. See pp. 94-95.

The final form of this text was determined in the Middle Ages, and it is that form which is usually called the Masoretic Text, while earlier forms found in the Judean Desert, lacking the later vocalization and accentuation, are named proto-Masoretic. In the first century CE the central position of the proto-Masoretic texts was strengthened because of the weakening or cessation of the other streams in Judaism. Because of its place in Judaism as the central text of the Hebrew Bible, Hi also became the determinative text for the Hebrew Bible of Christianity and of the scholarly world.

Differences between the Many Textual Witnesses of the Bible The biblical text has been transmitted in many ancient and medieval sources which are known to us from modern editions in different languages: W e now have manuscripts (MSS) in Hebrew and other languages from the Middle Ages and ancient times as well as fragments of leather and papyrus scrolls two thousand years old or more. " All of these textual witnesses differ from each other to a greater or lesser extent. Since no textual source contains what could be called "the" biblical text, a serious involvement in biblical studies clearly necessitates the study of all sources, including the differences between them.

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