By Mirjam van der Vorm-Croughs

Van der Vorm-Croughs focuses this translation research at the methods resulting in pluses and minuses together with linguistic and stylistic elements (i.e., situations during which components were additional or passed over for the sake of a formal use of the Greek language), literary features (additions and omissions intended to brighten the Greek text), translation technical features (e.g., the avoidance of redundancy), and contextual and intertextual exegesis and harmonization. This paintings additionally covers the relation among the Greek Isaiah and its attainable Hebrew Vorlage to aim to figure out which pluses and minuses could have been the results of the translator’s use of a distinct Hebrew textual content.

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Compare further ÌÛ ¿¼ÄšÂÀ¸ ÌýË ºýË in LXX Isa 14:15; 24:18; and 40:21. 25 See 9:18(19) above . 26 ÌýË ÇĊÁÇÍÄñÅ¾Ë may reprise ëÈĖ ÌüÅ ÇĊÁÇÍÄñžŠĞ¾Šearlier in the same verse. 27 ÈĠ¼ÑÅ has most likely been added under the influence of :'3 / ÈĠ¼ÀË in verse 31b. 28 -':! has been read as -':$ and translated ÂÀÁÄŪÅÌÑÅ. ÒÏįÉÇÍ may have been supplied in parallelism to ĸË ÁÇÅÀÇÉÌġÅ ÌÉÇÏÇı later in the verse. 4a. 29 For Ěɺý ÁÍÉĕÇÍ, see 9:18(19) and 13:13 above, and see also ¿ÍÄġË ÁÍÉĕÇÍ in 28:2; 30:33; 34:2; and 51:20.

Has received an interpretative translation as ĝ¸ŦËÄÇÍ. '3<':/'# Barr, Typology of Literalism, 303. '9$%¡+ as ¸ĤÌŊ. a. Translation at word level The translator of LXX Isaiah has mainly rendered his text at word level: most commonly one word in the Hebrew is mirrored by one word in the Greek. , the pronominal suffixes, the conjunction # and the prepositions ),  and +, which formally count as (functional) words. In parts of the text which are translated at word level pluses and minuses are simply those words in the translation that are extra as compared to the source text, respectively those words in the source text of which an equivalent fails in the translation.

A Guide to the Translation Technique of the Septuagint (ConBOT 30; Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1990), 72; Tov, Text-Critical Use of the Septuagint, 18, 40. 87 A balanced way of dealing with this question, as most of these scholars (including Aejmelaeus) themselves acknowledge, is to study and evaluate each and every individual case of plus or minus on its own, only after a thorough analysis has been made of the translation character of the work in which it is found. When a translation turns out to be quite literal, this may be an argument to seek the origin of its pluses and minuses in the first place in a different Vorlage.

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